This disease is a genetic disorder usually caused by the occurrence of transformation in both copies of the DNA which occurs in parts of the human body such as the liver, kidney, pancreas, intestine and more in the lungs.


Individuals with the cystic fibrosis disorder get to have a variety of symptoms from this disease which includes;

  • High saline taste on the skin
  • Insistent occurrence of a cough and most times with rheum (catarrh)
  • Lack of weight gain even with a perfect diet and appetite
  • Shortage of air flow through the lungs thereby leading to gasping for air and wheezing
  • Pneumonia and bronchitis get to occur at a high rate more frequently
  • Trouble with emptying the bowels as well as massive stools
  • In male, it is a possibility of making the individual infertile as well


Medical research has it that individuals with cystic fibrosis got it from both parents. They get to have both copies of cystic fibrosis with one gotten from each of the parents DNA. In a case where it is only one parent who has cystic fibrosis, you as an individual only get one copy of the DNA from that parent. This does not make you have the disease, and infact you do not have the disease but rather only a carrier.


It is important to know that now and then parents who are both carriers have a child, the chances of transferring copies of both DNA to the child are;

  • 25%- One in every four children will be infected with cystic fibrosis
  • 50%- One in every two children will be only but a carrier but will not be infected with cystic fibrosis
  • 25%- One in every four children will neither be a carrier nor be infected with cystic fibrosis.


  • 70,000 of humans worldwide are infected and living with cystic fibrosis
  • In approximations, about 1,500 individuals are diagnosed every year with cystic fibrosis
  • About 80% of those with cystic fibrosis are being diagnosed to have the disorder at the age 2
  • Majority of those infected with the cystic disorder are in the age gap of 18 or older


It is expected to know firsthand that majority of those with this disorder would experience difficulty breathing as it most times affects the lungs than other parts of the body. Cystic fibrosis is a complicated disorder and differs from individuals to individuals. Having a bacterial contamination could be quite risky for those with the disease, and so it is advisable to keep away from any form of bacterial generating items if in the cystic fibrosis category of those diagnosed to avoid complications.

Treatments get to add extra years to the life span of those undergoing treatment, but research has it that the average life span of one diagnosed with cystic fibrosis is around 40 years. Thanks to technology and critical research to battling the disease as it has given a lot of people the opportunity to live long enough to make come to pass their dreams.

This is a disease which negatively affects nerves found in the brain cells which make available for the human body dopamine. Symptoms could vary but majorly; tremors, the rigidity of the body muscles, gait and alterations in speech. It is also important to know that this disease has no cure of any sort, but rather treatments only get to reduce symptoms.


The symptom of Parkinson disease varies amongst individuals and gets to evolve as the disease spreads. Usually, there happen to be cases whereby an individual gets certain symptoms at the beginning stage while another individual does not or maybe gets it in the later development of the disease or never. Parkinson disease symptoms get to show up when the individual get between fifty and sixty years of age and gets to grow slowly without getting noticed by family members and friends. In some cases, it is not discovered until it is too late or death has occurred.

The disease may lead to motor and non-motor indications. Motor signs are those that pertain to the movement of the individual, and one of the major signs is called tremor.

Tremor: Tremor is the shaking of parts of the body such as the hands, legs or arm. This usually arises when you are in a static position such as sitting, standing or lying down but awake. It only gets better when the individual gets to walk around as a form of exercise and starts off again when static. This happens to be the first signs that show off in a person diagnosed with the Parkinson disease sometimes starting off with an arm or leg and later spreading to the other.

Do not be mistaken, not every individual having tremor is having the Parkinson disease. It is important to know the difference with someone with tremor gotten from having the Parkinson disease and someone who gets tremor from other diagnoses. Tremor in Parkinson occurs when the individual stays still while in the latter case, tremor happens when the person tries to move, and such can be treated as it may just be cold or aches.

Rigid Muscles: this is one of the symptoms that occur in the early stage of having the Parkinson disease. Stiffness gets to occur at different areas of the body such as the legs, arms, hands, neck and even the face. The body muscles of one with the Parkinson disease gets quite achy and weak.

This usually makes it painful to move as you feel like your joints need oiling of some sort. Sometimes, it is quite hard to get up from a chair or the bed in the morning as all of your muscles have decided to shut down.

Talking and swallowing could be much of a difficulty in this condition as you may end up choking, coughing or drooling when you get to try. Stiffness to the face due to the rigidity of the facial muscles could lead to a permanent kind of facial expression of the individual.

Tetanus is a disease that’ gets into the body through a wound. It is the result of a bacterial infection in the wounds. When there is a puncture, a cut, burn, or scrape that is capable of tearing or breaking the mucous membrane or the skin, this is called a wound. This is the most likely entry point of tetanus.

The bacteria that causes tetanus can produce a poison or toxin which induces seizures and muscle spasms. Tetanus can also affect the jaw by inducing muscle spasms which cause difficulty in moving the jaw. This prevents the mouth from opening and is also called “lockjaw”.

By hindering breathing and swallowing, tetanus may also result in death.

The main method of preventing tetanus infections in the body is by taking a tetanus shot to prevent it.

Tetanus shot for prevention

Little child have a vaccination shot in studio isolated on white

To protect yourself from tetanus, you will need to take immunization against tetanus in the form of tetanus shots. Tetanus shots come in three different forms for different ages. To ensure your protection, you should take all the tetanus shots and have your kids take them.

  • Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine: This tetanus vaccine is known as the primary vaccination series. It is called a series because it includes five vaccine shots which are given between 2 months old to 6 years old. The shots always start at 2 months old but may end at either 4 or 6 years old.
  • Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccine: this tetanus vaccine is given to protect against whooping cough. It is given at age 11 or 12 and is also given to adults or teenagers who missed the shot. It is also given to women who are nursing a pregnancy. It is known as a booster shot and is the first of the booster shots given to anyone.
  • Tetanus and diphtheria vaccine: this is given to people at intervals of 10 years and is a booster shot.

Reaction to shots

In some cases, people may react to a tetanus shot. This is usually indicated by any or all of the following

  • Swelling at the site
  • Warmth
  • Fever
  • Redness at the site of the shot

Treating the reactions from the shots are quite straightforward.

  1. Use an ice pack around the area of swelling
  2. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug should be considered after consulting your doctor.

When do you need to take a tetanus shot?

For a wound to occur, there must be a cut or break in the skin. Any object which is capable of cutting or breaking the skin may be clean, or it may be dirty.

If your last tetanus shot was over ten years ago, you need to get a tetanus shot. It doesn’t matter if the object was clean or dirty in this case.

In the case of dirty objects, if your last tetanus shot was more than five years ago, you should get a tetanus shot.

Also if you cannot recollect completing the primary vaccination series, it is advisable to get a tetanus shot for your wound.

A tetanus immunoglobulin (IG) may also be necessary in some cases. Always contact your doctor in case of any emergency.